Traditional and intellectual methods of digging

When high-pressure flows occur unexpectedly, they result in long stoppages. If, in fact, the IP owner can quantify lower levels of capital or operating costs connected directly with the ownership of the IP; then those lower costs can be a direct measurement Traditional and intellectual methods of digging the value of the specific IP.

Care is needed early on to determine safety requirements. The holder of a patent can stop third parties from making, using or selling his invention for a period of years depending on the type of invention.

Here each cycle involves drilling, loading explosive, blasting, ventilating fumes, and excavation of the blasted rock called mucking. Ventilation is vital, both to provide fresh air and to remove explosive gases such as methane and noxious gases, including blast fumes.

This results in backfilling that needs to be done after excavation. Investing a day or two early on will save headaches later. In larger tunnels, air pressure is generally set to balance the water pressure in the lower part of the tunnel, with the result that it then exceeds the smaller water pressure at the crown upper part.

Integrating modern and traditional medicine: Facts and figures

These properties are controlled by the spacing and nature of the defects, including joints generally fractures caused by tension and sometimes filled with weaker materialfaults shear fractures frequently filled with claylike material called gougeshear zones crushed from shear displacementaltered zones in which heat or chemical action have largely destroyed the original bond cementing the rock crystalsbedding planes, and weak seams in shale, often altered to clay.

Not too long ago, defensible IP was one of the top things venture capitalists wanted to see in a startup. In ad 41 the Romans used some 30, men for 10 years to push a 3. Free plant food — another recipe for helping your plants is to create your own plant food by steeping nettles in water.

These are often the countries where traditional remedies are used the most see Figure 1. In Babyloniatunnels were used extensively for irrigation; and a brick-lined pedestrian passage some 3, feet metres long was built about to bc under the Euphrates River to connect the royal palace with the temple.

Alternate Approaches to the Valuation of Intellectual Property

Ventilation became a major problem, which was solved by the use of forced air from water-powered fans and a horizontal diaphragm at mid-height, forming an exhaust duct at top of the tunnel.

The dominant factor, however, is the huge reduction in productive time and lengthy decompression time required for people working under air to prevent the crippling disease known as the bends or caisson diseasealso encountered by divers. Because digging is a cutting process, particularly where the soil being dug contains plant rootsdigging is aided by the shovel being sharpened.

This technique is best used when the subject company has a complex portfolio of intellectual property and works on the supposition that the IP is giving its owner an advantage over its competitors because of proprietary patents, technology, trademarks, software or other intangibles.

In contrast, few scientific tests are done to evaluate traditional medicine products and practices. It is important to use a discount rate appropriate with the level of risk involved at each stage of a managerial decision associated with the development of a brand or IP.

How you protect your intellectual property depends on what types of intellectual property you have. Copyright protection begins as soon as the work is fixed in a tangible medium. American moles have developed two types of cutters: In some cases, this means adapting standard methods to cope with ethical issues that do not arise with conventional drug development.

This proprietary system was developed by our firm more than two decades ago and employs a matrix of the twenty most important predictors of value for a trademark, patent or piece of software.

The Oahe mole was partly inspired by work on a pilot tunnel in chalk started under the English Channel for which an air-powered rotary cutting arm, the Beaumont borer, had been invented. Ad hoc during consultation with the patient Pre-determined, and once tested in clinical trials cannot be changed unless re-tested Regulation Virtually none, though some countries are trying to introduce rules and standardisation Extremely tight, to the point that bringing drugs to market now costs billions of dollars Testing No formal testing as knowledge of the effectiveness is handed down through generations Rigorous trials that happen in different phases, first testing for safety, then efficacy Dosage Unfixed: Tunneling techniques Basic tunneling system Tunnels are generally grouped in four broad categories, depending on the material through which they pass: He currently serves as an active member of the International Licensing Executives Society board of delegates.

The team has had a handful of promising leads, though none has yet been effective enough to pursue as a candidate drug. For example, Western researchers would probably categorise heart failure in patients according to the New York Heart Association classification.

While the ground arch eventually stabilized in these and numerous similar examples, knowledge is inadequate to establish the point between desirable deformation to mobilize ground strength and excessive deformation which reduces its strengthand improvement is most likely to come from carefully planned and observed field-test sections at prototype scale, but these have been so costly that very few have actually been executed, notably the test sections in clay on the Chicago subway and the Garrison Dam test tunnel in the clay-shale of North Dakota.

The 5-mile, foot El Colegio Penstock Tunnel in Colombia was completed in in bituminous shalerequiring the replacement and resetting of more than 2, rib sets, which buckled as the invert bottom supports and sides gradually squeezed in up to 3 feet, and by deferring concreting until the ground arch stabilized.

The historical cost to develop an asset is sometimes used to determine its value.

Protecting Your Intellectual Property: How and Why

Here, only the face is pressurized, and the tunnel proper operates in free air—thus avoiding the high costs of labour under pressure. Further improvements are likely from the recent introduction of the laserthe pencil-size light beam of which supplies a reference line readily interpreted by workers.

Trademark law seeks to protect consumers from confusion or deception by preventing other businesses from using the same or a confusingly similar name for their products. The digger-shield type of machine is essentially a hydraulic-powered digger arm excavating ahead of a shield, whose protection can be extended forward by hydraulically operated poling plates, acting as retractable spiles.

Soft-ground moles Since their first success inmoles mining machines have been rapidly adopted worldwide.The whole process of hydro excavation is simply more efficient and more cost effective than traditional methods.

The job gets done fast and efficiently with minimum effort. The precise control of the pressurized water creates the piling holes with a. In the end, Japanese engineers hit on the expedient of digging a parallel drainage tunnel the entire length of the main tunnel. In addition, they resorted to compressed-air tunneling with shield and air lock, a technique almost unheard-of in mountain tunneling.

Make time to get smart on intellectual property. Educate yourself and team on the basics of trademarks, copyrights, patents, and trade secrets. Investing a day or two early on will save headaches later.

Methods of digging. Although humans are capable of digging in sand and soil using their bare hands, digging is often more easily accomplished with tools.

Traditional Gardening Methods

The most basic tool for digging is the shovel. In neolithic times and earlier a large animal's scapula (shoulder blade) was often used as a crude shovel. Traditional African Medicine: Herbalism, Spirituality and Treating HIV/AIDS. [Online] Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us.

We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE An Exploration in International Policy Discourse Dr. John Mugabe Executive Director, African Center for Technology Studies.

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Traditional and intellectual methods of digging
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